by Kazimierz Subieta


Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology, Warsaw, Poland




If you are not satisfied by the current database theories, check the Stack-Based Architecture. Perhaps it is an answer to your questions. Be prepared to a rather long journey, with a lot of places that will require your imagination and thinking. The best way to understand the concepts is to implement them within some prototype. The Stack-Based Architecture is not a simplistic theory like the relational algebra, it is a holistic theory for true practical professionals, covering all the fundamental aspects of object-oriented database models and query/programming languages for these models.


SBA/SBQL has several implementations, mainly research prototypes: Netul, Loqis, VPOS, a query language for the XML DOM model, ICONS, a query language for Objectivity/DB, BPQL, YAOD, ODRA, LoXiM and a lot of student projects. Currently implemented for the European projects (6th Framework) eGov Bus and VIDE. Considered as a departure point for the new OMG 4th generation OODBMS standard. New projects have started, in particular, object-oriented declarative workflow systems based on SBQL.


Various Info on SBA and SBQL



NEW! SBQL4J - Stack Based Query Language for Java. An extension to the Java language with an engine based on the Stack-Based Architecture. It provides capabilities similar to Microsoft LINQ for Java. March 2010.


Virtual Repository Management System ODRA (Object Database for Rapid Application development), where SBA and SBQL (and much more) are implemented: short overview, documentation .doc (4 MB), .rar (2MB). ODRA is a prototype object-oriented database management system based on SBQL, developed at the Polish-Japanese Institute of Information Technology (discussion Forum, in Polish), ODRA papers


The discussion (September 1, 2008 - October 30, 2008) after a conversation of Prof. Roberto Zicari with Mike Card "LINQ is the best option for a future Java query API", presented at ODBMS Industry Watch. In the discussion many posts concern SBA and SBQL in the context of database standardization.


A mirror from http://www.odbms.org/experts.html#article19

Object Database Systems: Quo Vadis?

By Mike Card, Jim Paterson, Kazimierz Subieta, Roberto Zicari (Editor)

June 2, 2008: ODBMS.ORG, a vendor-independent non-profit group of high-profile software experts lead by Prof. Roberto Zicari, has exclusively published a new panel discussion "Object Database Systems: Quo vadis?" on experts' views on on some critical questions related to Object Databases:

·          Where are Object Database Systems going?

·          Are Relational database systems becoming Object Databases?

·          Do we need a standard for Object Databases?

·          Why ODMG did not succeed?
DOWNLOAD (PDF) | June 2008


Comparison of queries in SBQL and Microsoft LINQ The comparison shows disadvantages of LINQ for simple queries. LINQ fans are challenged to show how LINQ can deal with more complex queries in SBQL.


1st International Conference on Object-Oriented Databases, Berlin 13-14 March 2008. Our presentations and papers:

·          Stack-Based Architecture and Stack-Based Query Language (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc, presentation slides in Power Point .ppt)

·          Unrestricted Updateability and Unlimited Mapping in SBQL Object Views (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc, presentation slides in Power Point .ppt)

·          Overview of the Project ODRA (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc, presentation slides in Acrobat .pdf)

·          Implementation and Testing of SBQL Object-Relational Wrapper Supporting Query Optimisation (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc)

·          Recursive Query Processing in SBQL (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc)

·          Object Oriented Database Prototype as a Model Execution Engine for Executable UML (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc)

·          Optimization by Indices in ODRA (Acrobat .pdf, Word .doc)


Object Management Group (OMG) Meetings and Presentations:

Burlingame, CA, USA, 10-14 December 2007

OMG Object Database Technology Users and Vendors Roundtable

Roundtable Announcement

Object Database Semantics:  the Stack-Based Architecture,

by Kazimierz Subieta, PJIIT

Summary of Forum Topics, by Anat Gafni, db4o

September - December 2007

OMG White Paper on 4th generation OODBMS standard,

by Mike Card from Syracuse Research Corporation.

Discussion Forum concerning the White Paper.

News from the ODBMS.ORG Portal on OMG work on the standard.

Brussels, Belgium

25-28 June 2007

Updating Issues in SBQL (presented for OMG Object Database Technology Working Group (ODTWG))

Stack-Based Approach and Stack-Based Query Language – Overview (presented for OMG Analysis & Design Task Force (ADTF))

Washington DC, USA

4-8 December 2006

Who we are, our research, what we can offer for OMG

SBQL demo based on the ODRA prototype and data imported from XML files.

The most up-to-date version of the ODRA-IDE can be found here

Anaheim, CA, USA

25-29 September 2006

SBA and SBQL, long presentation (distributed among OMG Object Database Technology Working Group members).

SBA and SBQL, short presentation (presented on the meeting). 

Simple example showing how the stacks work (presented on the meeting), Flash animation.  The file omg.swf must be in the same directory as the file .ppt. Double click into the title field moves to the end. The same example without animation.

Simple example showing how the stack work for the model with dynamic object roles (distributed among OMG Object Database Technology Working Group members).


Overview of SBA/SBQL by K.Subieta, December 2006


Home pages of SBA and SBQL www.sbql.pl, by K.Subieta. Permanently extended, up to covering all the basic topics of SBA and SBQL


Lectures devoted to SBA and SBQL (23 PowerPoint files, in Polish)


LoXiM – a prototype OODBMS with SBQL, developed at Warsaw University.


A proposal for the “SBQL” definitional entry to the Encyclopedia of Database Systems by Springer


PhD Theses relevant to SBA and SBQL


Papers, books and reports devoted to SBA and SBQL


Last modified: March 22, 2010